Table of Contents
1.0 Information systems
2.0Types of information systems
2.1Transaction Processing Systems
2.2 Enterprise Collaboration Systems (ECS)
2.3 Management information system
2.4 Decision support system
2.5 Executive information system
3.0 Case studies
3.1 Hilton Hotels
3.2Virgin Atlantic airline
With increased and changing business trends, needs and environment, it becomes imperative for organizations to stay in pace with technology and contemporary business practices. Failure to adopt such technologies would lead to the organization finding it hard to maintain a competitive advantage and stay relevant to internal and external consumer expectations. The internal operations of any organizations need to be streamlined to ensure efficiency, transparency, and reliability. This can be achieved through the adoptions of mechanisms that would aid in this line. Indeed, since the introduction of computers and computation of operation in organizations, analyst accentuate that firms have witnessed unprecedented levels of productivity as regards efficiency in employee performance, transactions, management and inventory. With computers, the concept of information systems was born. These systems have been instrumental in streamlining the operations and activities of large organizations which have adopted them. Nevertheless, some of the systems adopted by organizations need to reviewed. In this case an organization should ensure that the systems conform to its targeted goals, and the hence the need to adopt up-to-date information systems.
1.0 Information Systems
An information system can be defined as an application that integrates both information technology and activities with people. It aids the employees or human beings to improve and consequently support an organization’s operations, planning, management and decision making processes (Yusuf, 1998). In essence, the system incorporates the interaction between human beings and technology. It stresses on the concept of people’s way of interacting with technology in the field of information to aid processes in the organization such as decision making and data collection as well as in defining employee-employer relationships. Mandal and Gunasekaran (2002) further define such systems as a work system whose activities are dedicated to processing, capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying information. According to Laudon, “information systems is thus composed of computers, instructions, stored facts, people and procedure (2010, p.20). Hence it can be categorized into Decision Support System (DSS), Management information System and Executive Information Systems.
Figure 1. Types of Information Systems pyramid
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Source: Sauter, V. L. 1997. Decision support systems: an applied managerial approach. New York, John Wiley, Pg 34
These categories can further be subdivided into different types of information systems, which include transaction processing systems, office systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, database management systems and office information systems. Analysts accentuate that the most important information systems are the information technologies. This types of systems are developed to aid or enable employees, staff or even managers in an organization to perform activities for which the typical human brain is unable to or not conversant with. Such activities include handling large quantities and volumes of information, performing critical and complicated calculations and subsequently analyzing and examining processes within an organization.
An information system therefore refers to the interrelated interaction between technology and organizational processes (Abdinnour et al, 2003, Pg 259). It may exist within or without the organization, and hence it cannot be defined as the technology used by an organization alone, but also involves the degree, type and procedure of interaction the organization has with technology. Consequently the technological aspect should act as to improve the businesses processes in that organization. What makes information systems different from information technology is the concept that it not only incorporates information technology, but also involves processes interaction with information technology.
2.0 Types of Information Systems
Basically as expressed in the above paradigm, the traditional types of information systems can be categorized into five types, which include Transaction Process Systems (TPS), Enterprise Collaboration Systems (ECS), Management Information Systems (MIS), Decision Support Systems (DSS) and Executive Support Systems (ESS) (Baker,1992). However, there are other types of systems such as warehouses enterprise systems, geographic information system, global information system and automation systems. However, this paper would review the five mentioned types.
2.1 Transaction Processing Systems
Transaction Process Systems, also referred to as TPS, are types of information systems that are instrumental in collecting, storing, modifying and retrieving the transactions of an organization or business enterprise. A transaction can be defined as any event that can be termed as having passed the data storage and modification acid test. This system is comprised of features which should ensure that transaction process is reliable. They ensure that customer orders are diligently met on time, and that the organization’s associates and suppliers are paid on time and can subsequently make payment to the business. Given that transaction processing in any organization is a vital exercise, this concept has become a key component of efficient and effective management of business (Baker, 1992).
With the emergence of Information and Communication technologies, and the relatively cheap cost of calls (voice and data), the use of call centers to provide new services to citizens has grown extensively. Evolution in call centers technologies, systems and infrastructures allowed the transformation of industries and services in big enterprises and organizations, customer support services, marketing services and after sales support are examples of such transformations.
The objective of this paper was to introduce a new technique that can support decision makers in the call centers industry to evaluate, and analyze the performance of call centers. The technique presented is derived from the research done on measuring the success or failure of information systems. Two models are mainly adopted namely: the Delone and Mclean model first introduced in 1992 and the Design Reality Gap model introduced by Heeks in 2002. Two indices are defined to calculate the performance of the call center; the success index and the Gap Index. An evaluation tool has been developed to allow call centers managers to evaluate the performance of their call centers in a systematic analytical approach; the tool was applied on 4 call centers from different areas, simple applications such as food ordering, marketing, and sales, technical support systems, to more real time services such as the example of emergency control systems. Results showed the importance of using information systems models to evaluate complex systems as call centers. The models used allow identifying the dimensions for the call centers that are facing challenges, together with an identification of the individual indicators in these dimensions that are causing the poor performance of the call center.