Subject By Subject Comparative Essay Definition

COMPARISON AND CONTRAST


When you read assignments, certain key words and phrases - compare and contrast, similarities and differences, relative merits, advantages and disadvantages - indicate that you should use a comparison-and-contrast pattern to organize your essay.

The first step is to establish a basis of comparison, the common element or elements in the subjects you will discuss. For example, although cats and dogs are dissimilar pets, both can learn from their owners. Cats and dogs may be taught different behaviors in different ways, but these differences can be analyzed because both animals share a common element: Both are trainable. Without a common element, you would have no basis for analysis - that is, no basis of comparison.

When you compare and contrast, make sure that you discuss the same elements for both subjects. For instance, if you were going to compare and contrast two poems, you might consider the following elements in both works:

                                    Poem 1                                    Poem 2

                                Symbolism                               Symbolism
                                   Meter                                       Meter
                                  Theme                                     Theme

You would not consider symbolism and theme in one poem and meter and symbolism in the other.

There are two forms of comparison/contrast papers. Each form has its own characteristics that are useful for different types of paper formats. Here is a description of each of those two forms:

Subject-by-Subject Comparison

A subject-by-subject comparison is, in effect, two separate essays about the same subject. Of course, the essays are linked with a transition and cover the same points. For example, to compare and contrast dogs and cats, you might organize your information in the following way:

       Introduction: Thesis statement - Even though dogs and cats are both popular pets, they have vastly different characteristics that require owners to deal with them in different ways.

        Dogs
               Point 1: Dependent
               Point 2: Eager to please
               Point 3: Easily trained

        Cats
               Point 1: Independent
               Point 2: Indifferent about pleasing
               Point 3: Not easily trained

        Conclusion: Restatement of thesis

Subject-by-subject comparisons work best for short papers that cover simple subjects.

Point-by-Point Comparison: When you write a point-by-point comparison, you write about each major point for both subjects before moving on to another main point. For example, the information about cats and dogs might be organized in the following manner:

    Introduction: Thesis statement - Even though dogs and cats are both popular pets, they have vastly different characteristics that require owners to deal with them in different ways.

        Degree of dependence on owner
                   Dogs
                   Cats

        Eagerness to please
            Dogs
                Cats

        Trainability
             Dogs
             Cats

        Conclusion: Restatement of thesis

Point-by-point comparisons are especially useful for longer, more complicated essays in which you discuss a number of different points.

Printable version of Comparative Essays (PDF).


Writing a comparison usually requires that you assess the similarities and differences between two or more theories, procedures, or processes. You explain to your reader what insights can be gained from the comparison, or judge whether one thing is better than another according to established criteria.

Helpful tip: When you are asked to write a comparative essay, remember that, unless you are instructed otherwise, you are usually being asked to assess both similarities and differences. Such essays may be called comparative essays, comparison essays, or compare-and-contrast essays.

How to write a comparative essay



  • A basis of comparison represents the main idea, category, or theme you will investigate. You will have to do some preliminary reading, likely using your course materials, to get an idea of what kind of criteria you will use to assess whatever you are comparing. A basis of comparison must apply to all items you are comparing, but the details will be different.

    For example, if you are asked to "compare neoclassical architecture and gothic architecture," you could compare the influence of social context on the two styles.


  • Once you have decided what theme or idea you are investigating, you will need to gather details of whatever you are comparing, especially in terms of similarities and differences. Doing so allows you to see which criteria you should use in your comparison, if not specified by your professor or instructor.

e.g.

CriteriaNeoclassical ArchtectureGothic Architecture
ChurchesAppeal to Greek perfectionAppeal to emotion
Civic buildingsColumnsTowers and spires
PalacesFormulaic and mathematicalWild and rustic


Helpful tip: Organize your criteria in columns or a Venn diagram; using visual methods to map your pre-writing work can help you to stay on track and more clearly get a sense of how the essay will be structured.


Based on the information in the above table, you could focus on how ornamentation and design principles reveal prevailing intellectual thought about architecture in the respective eras and societies.



  • After brainstorming, try to develop a thesis statement that identifies the results of your comparison. Here is an example of a fairly common thesis statement structure:

    e.g., Although neoclassical architecture and gothic architecture have [similar characteristics A and B], they reveal profound differences in their interpretation of [C, D, and E].


Helpful tip: Avoid a thesis statement that simply states your obvious purpose.

e.g., The aim of this essay is to compare [A and B] with reference to [X, Y, and Z].



  • You have a choice of two basic methods for organizing a comparative essay: the point-by-point method or the block method.

    The point-by-point method examines one aspect of comparison in each paragraph and usually alternates back and forth between the two objects, texts, or ideas being compared. This method allows you to emphasize points of similarity and of difference as you proceed.

    In the block method, however, you say everything you need to say about one thing, then do the same thing with the other. This method works best if you want readers to understand and agree with the advantages of something you are proposing, such as introducing a new process or theory by showing how it compares to something more traditional.

Sample outlines for comparative essays on neoclassical and gothic architecture

Building a point-by-point essay

Using the point-by-point method in a comparative essay allows you to draw direct comparisons and produce a more tightly integrated essay.

Helpful tip: Note that you can have more than three points of comparison, especially in longer essays. The points can be either similarities or differences. Overall, in order to use this method, you must be able to apply criteria to every item, text, or idea you are comparing.

  1. Introduction
    1. Introductory material
    2. Thesis: Although neoclassical and gothic architecture are both western European forms that are exemplified in civic buildings and churches, they nonetheless reveal, through different structural design and ornamentation, the different intellectual principles of the two societies that created them.
  2. Body section/Paragraph 1: Criterion A (Ornamentation)
    1. Text 1
    2. Text 2
  3. Body section/Paragraph 2: Criterion B (Major appeal)
    1. Text 1
    2. Text 2
  4. Body section/Paragraph 3: Criterion C (Style)
    1. Text 1
    2. Text 2
  5. Conclusion
    1. Summary
    2. Why this comparison is important and what it tells readers

Building a block method essay

Using the block method in a comparative essay can help ensure that the ideas in the second block build upon or extend ideas presented in the first block. It works well if you have three or more major areas of comparison instead of two (for example, if you added in a third or fourth style of architecture, the block method would be easier to organize).

  1. Introduction
    1. Introductory material
    2. Thesis: The neoclassical style of architecture was a conscious rejection of the gothic style that had dominated in France at the end of the middle ages; it represented a desire to return to the classical ideals of Greece and Rome.
  2. Body
    1. Text 1: History and development
    2. Text 2: Change from earlier form; social context of new form
    3. Synthesis and analysis: What does the comparison reveal about architectural development?
  3. Conclusion
    1. Summary
    2. Why this comparison is important and what it tells readers

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