The two words every student groans at when ending any school year is "summer reading" -- especially since at the end of the school year, the last thing we want to think about is homework. No, sir. Despite that fact, by the time August rolls around, students start to scramble to finish reading all of those books and completing all of those additional writing assignments. Summer turns us into the biggest procrastinators.
Not every book teachers have us read are drag-your-feet boring, though. All of the books I had freshman year were interesting and amazing, and the same goes for most of the books I had for sophomore year. Sophomore year was the first year I actually got summer reading since I moved to a new city and school where the teachers actually gave out summer reading. Seeing as I only moved a few days before school started, though, my summer reading basically became homework on top of the homework I got the rest of my classes, and every assignment I couldn't complete because I hadn't finished the book became additional homework on my plate. That was completely awful and a million times worse than summer reading actually done in the summer.
You don't have to be excited to do your summer reading and assignments. However, you don't have to torture yourself through it, either. There are a few quick tips that can make it all just a little less painful.
• Don't wait until five days before school starts -- even procrastinating until a few weeks before school starts is a better fate than waiting until the very last minute.
• Find that sweet spot to start working where it's not so early in summer you'll forget everything you read by the time you go back to school but it's not so late that you feel too rushed and can't pace yourself. It helps to know how much you have to read and/or write and to know how quickly you can read, annotate, and work.
• Don't start complaining before you even begin. If you start going on about how awful the book is going to be or how much you don't want to do the writing assignment, the entire fiasco is already spiraling downhill before you even begin, and it's all going to seem that much worse. Instead, try to get yourself pumped up and tell yourself it's not going to be bad and that you can do this -- a positive mindset will get you through without feeling like you want to die every five minutes. A bad attitude won't get you anywhere, and it'll only encourage procrastination.
• Get a good idea of what your book is about before your begin reading. If you understand the basic plot and themes, it'll help keep you from getting lost or confused, especially if it's a complicated book with a lot of archaisms and allusions. Also, while you're doing your research, find out why the book is highly acclaimed or why people like it.
• If your summer reading book seems like a complete bore, try to find interesting trivia about the book or author. Find any interesting facts on how the author first started, what problems the book went through before it was published, the success of the book, famous people who have read the book, or anything else that may interest you. Look at pictures of places in the book or illustrations people have made for the book. Let your curiosity soar, and the more interesting things you find related to your book, the more interesting the book itself may seem.
• Space your work. Take it apart and take the assignments little by little, gradually increasing the amount you do. This will help keep you from getting immediately overwhelmed, and the slowly increasing amount of work will help you get back into school mode so you don't get completely shocked when the load drops on you.
• Set your goals. Set reading goals to reach by the end of each day or each week to keep yourself on track! This will also help you space out your homework!
• Find something to motivate you. Some people need an extra motivation to get them through. Try setting up a reward system for reaching your daily goals like getting a little treat or find something you really want and only let yourself buy after you successfully finish your summer reading assignment. You know yourself best- what will motivate you?
• Give yourself periodic breaks. Don't work your butt off for hours reading or working on assignments. Make sure you give yourself short breaks every now and then, clear your mind or take time to reflect on what you just read, and get a snack in you to keep your energy up!
• Read in a way that suits your learning style. If you're reading a summer book, find some way to do it that works best for you. If you need to be interactive with the next and read it out loud or act out any dialogue, do so. If you just need a quite environment, make it happen. You can also find audio versions of just about any book -- you can listen to them in the car or when you're bored, and you can read along, as well. The bottom line is to do whatever works best for you.
• If you're reading a book and absolutely hate it, you can at least try to appreciate the quality of the writing itself or the messages behind it. When a book doesn't necessarily ring my bell, I can usually at least respect all of those rhetorical devices and structures the author used or the beautiful writing or the style and so on. Anyone can have an appreciation for great writing. You can also respect the deeper messages and the use of symbolism and archetypes, too. In fact, the meaning behind the book is always my favorite part about reading, whether it's Nicholas Sparks showing us the power of love or Dante giving us lessons on the worst crimes a person can commit in life, such as becoming a traitor to your benefactor.
Do whatever you need to do in order to succeed. This list isn't foolproof and not everyone is going to find it helpful, but hopefully there are some tips you can try to use. Don't be afraid to test different methods and alter them as you go! Make them your own techniques! The main goal is to get through that summer reading assignment! Good luck!
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Updated, Aug. 31, 11:45 a.m. | Harris Cooper offers more details about research on the link between homework and student achievement. Scroll down to read his added explanation.
For many young Americans, going back to school might seem like rest and relaxation. In the last week before Labor Day, how many students across the country were racing to finish their summer homework, from “A Tree Grows in Brooklyn” to math refresher exercises?
The pile of books and other vacation assignments appears to grow every year. Is all this homework beneficial or should children be given a break? An article in The Times on Sunday described a debate over assigned reading throughout the year. Some educators argue that students should be given wide latitude in deciding what they want to read, while others defended the “Moby-Dick” model. How should this issue be treated in summer, when some schools insist that everyone finish “The Old Man and the Sea,” while other schools say that “Gossip Girl” helps satisfy the requirement?
We asked some experts for their perspective, now that the summer homework is due.
- Harris Cooper, psychologist, Duke University
- Nancy Kalish, co-author, “The Case Against Homework”
- Mark Bauerlein, author, “The Dumbest Generation”
- Denise Pope, Stanford University School of Education
- Richard Allington, education professor, University of Tennessee
- Elizabeth Birr Moje, education professor, University of Michigan
- Tyrone Howard, education professor, U.C.L.A.
Forgotten on Vacation
Harris Cooper is chairman of the department of psychology and neuroscience at Duke University.
There is growing concern about the summer vacation’s possible negative impact on learning. Many educators argue that children learn best when instruction is continuous. The long summer vacation disrupts the rhythm of instruction, leads to forgetting, and requires time be spent reviewing old material when students return to school in fall.
Research evidence bears out these concerns. A group of colleagues and I conducted a review of 39 studies, and it confirmed that, on average, achievement test scores declined between spring and fall, and the loss was more pronounced for math than reading. The reason for this subject matter difference is simple: kid’s out-of-school environments provide more opportunities to practice reading skills than math.
Also, the research indicated that the impact can differ based on a child’s economic background. All students, regardless of economic status, lost roughly equal amounts of math skills over summer. However, substantial differences were found for reading. On some measures, middle-class children showed gains in reading achievement, particular word recognition scores, over summer. Low-wealth children showed losses.
In addition, while research evidence is scarce, educators argue that the long summer break can have a greater negative effect on the learning of children with special educational needs. The long break also can add an extra burden for children who do not speak English at home. Not only might they have to relearn academic material, they also must reacquaint themselves with the language of instruction.
With the great pressures that educators feel nowadays to help all children achieve at their optimum level, the practice of assigning “summer homework” has increased. These assignments can vary from giving kids a voluntary opportunity to get a head start reading books they will cover in next year’s English class to textbook assignments that they will be tested on when they come back to school in fall.
I know of no studies that have directly tested whether kids who get summer homework do better in school the next school year. I do know that summer school can be highly effective and summer homework might be considered a “low dose” of summer school. Of course, given that there is no teacher supervision and the hours spent on summer homework are typically much fewer than attending summer school, it is risky to leap from on conclusion to the other.
My suspicion is that summer homework can have a positive effect on kid’s achievement. But, like everything teachers do, it’ll work best if it is focused on explicit goals and is well-constructed with clearly instructions. It also shouldn’t be so overwhelming it crowds out the other activities that make summer special. Resentment is not conducive to learning.
And, parents need to be behind the effort. Some parents complain that kids must have time to be kids. Summer is the best kid-time of all. Many children go to summer camps where they learn lots of important skills not covered in school. Many adolescents take on jobs that teach responsibility and provide them with money for leisure time during the school year.
My advice? Teachers, you need to be careful about what and how much summer homework you assign. Summer homework shouldn’t be expected to overcome a student’s learning deficits; that’s what summer school is for. Parents, if the assignments are clear and reasonable, support the teachers. When your child says “I’m bored” (what parent hasn’t heard this on a rainy summer day?) suggest they work on an assignment. Kids, don’t wait until the week before school starts to think about what you need to get done.
What Homework Can’t Do
Nancy Kalish is the co-author of “The Case Against Homework: How Homework Is Hurting Our Children and What We Can Do About It.”
Summer homework sounds like a good idea…until you see how miserable a child looks as he slogs through that pile of book reports, math packets, journal entries, and other typical assignments. The summer load has grown significantly since we were kids. But a little hard work never hurt anyone, right?
Well in this case, it might. Schools should rethink summer homework, and not just because it stresses out kids (and parents). The truth is, homework doesn’t accomplish what we assume it does. According to a Duke University review of more than 175 studies, there is little or no correlation between homework and standardized test scores or long-term achievement in elementary school, and only a moderate correlation in middle school.
Some studies claim that students lose skills they don’t practice over the summer. However, if a child can’t regain his grasp of fractions with a brief review, maybe those skills weren’t taught well enough in the first place. Doing a mountain of math sheets without a teacher’s help — and perhaps incorrectly — is not the answer.
But there are a few things summer homework does accomplish effectively: It steals time away from other important aspects of learning such as play, which helps kids master social skills and teamwork. In addition, writing book reports means kids spend fewer hours being physically active, which is essential for good health and weight control, not to mention proper brain development.
Perhaps worst of all, summer homework affects how kids feel about learning and school. Do we want our children to start the year refreshed and ready to learn? Or burned out and resentful? It’s something every teacher should carefully consider.
Reversing the Summer Brain Drain
Mark Bauerlein is a professor of English at Emory University and the author of “The Dumbest Generation: How the Digital Age Stupefies Young Americans and Jeopardizes Our Future.”
To the general question of whether or not schools should assign summer homework, the answer is, “Yes, most assuredly.” What the assignment consists of will vary with the student population, but some extension of learning into vacation time is sorely needed.
The reason stems not only from the brain drain of summer and the fog of texting that enwraps youths during leisure hours. It relates also to an attitude young people take toward education. In a word, they regard learning as a classroom thing, that’s all. They tie knowledge to the syllabus, not to themselves. They read and study to write the paper and ace the test, not to furnish their minds. Learning is to earn a high score and good grade, not to form responsible citizens and discerning consumers.
A good measure of the attitude is how often they talk to teachers outside of class. According to the 2008 National Survey of Student Engagement, the rate of college seniors who “Never” or “Sometimes” (two or three times a semester?) discuss readings and ideas with teachers reaches 72 percent.
At the secondary level, according to the 2007 American Freshman Survey, the rate of high school seniors who went on to college (the high performers) who talked to teachers less than one hour per week came in at 53.4 percent. That’s a 10 point rise over 1987’s tally.
The free-ranging, back-and-forth conversation with teachers that signifies a student’s interest in the subject didn’t strike the majority as important. And why should it, when the system encourages them to respect only how learning shows up on a transcript or a test result?
The outcome is unsurprising. Once the assignment is finished and class ends — poof! The knowledge goes away. It’s done its work. Why retain it? This explains why on assessments of general knowledge learned in high school, college freshman often score higher than seniors. Time hasn’t yet taken so high a toll on their learning.
To halt the decay, teachers need to change the attitude. This means inserting more out-of-class engagement with teachers and materials, including summer homework, but not linking them so closely to a grade. The goal is not to pile on more tasks and instill more “achievement-thinking.” It is, instead, to make knowledge firmer, and to attach a message which says:
“Life is short, and the years of school pass in a rush. This is your only chance to encounter deep ideas and complex histories with a mentor to help you through. The works of beauty and truth are not chores to slog through. They are the raw materials of mind and character, and they should shape not only your resume, but you, too.”
Procrastination and Busywork
Denise Pope is senior lecturer at the Stanford University School of Education and co-founder of Challenge Success, a research and student intervention project.
The problem with summer homework is a lack of buy-in from one of the main constituencies: the students. During the school year, the students don’t necessarily enjoy doing homework, but they understand it is part of their daily routine. In the summer, students expect, and often need, a break from this routine and the daily pressures that usually accompany it.
Why should we care if the students are bought in? We know from research that motivation plays a central role in engagement with learning and, subsequently, student achievement. If students are given choice and voice in the learning process, for example, they are more likely to want to learn the material and more likely to retain it.
When students are not motivated, the teacher –- or in the case of summer, the parent — often needs to become part of the homework equation, monitoring, reminding, cajoling to make sure the work gets done. In my community, many parents complain that they don’t want to serve as “homework police” in the summer, and many admit that they are as frustrated as their kids when it comes to summer assignments.
One parent complained that her third grade son had to read five books and write five book reports over the summer. The problem was that he hated the books and kept procrastinating, and the stress on the child and on the entire family over the nine weeks became “unbearable.” Other parents admit that their kids wait until the very last minute to sit down and do the work, usually a day or two before school starts up again, and then they are cramming to get it all done.
I have seen the research that shows that students lose valuable skills when they are not in school during the summer months. And I worry especially about the kids who will spend most of the summer inside, in front of TVs or video games, and will be wasting the value of this free time. However, summer homework fails to serve its purpose if it causes undue stress on kids and families, if it is done all at once in a last minute rush, or if it is viewed as meaningless busywork.
Summer rest and exploration is especially important these days, given the increased pressure on students from high-stakes testing, the increase in homework during the school year, and the busy-ness of the extracurricular lives of many of our kids. Ideally, summer should be seen as a gift, an important time to explore new hobbies, enjoy the outdoors, read for fun, work a summer job, take on an exciting challenge, gain independence, and foster deeper connections with family and friends. The learning that happens during these experiences is as important as the skills and content learned during the school year.
If we want students to use this time wisely and appropriately, we ought to educate them about the benefits of summer time and encourage them — perhaps even give an “assignment” — to use the break to pursue interests of their choosing. Then, when they get back to school in September, they can write about, discuss, or present their “summer learning” in a way that is meaningful to them.
The Risk of Falling Behind
Richard Allington is a professor of reading education at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
In some schools, it is common for students to be assigned teacher-selected books for the summer vacation months. I know of not a single study supporting this practice, but I do know of studies showing the various methods students use to convince teachers they did the reading even though they didn’t.
A basic problem with this old, and desperate, model of summer reading assignments is that only rarely do teachers (or schools) assign books that a typical kid would ever want to read.
At the same time, research has also demonstrated, including with New York City school students, that students from low-income families rarely read during the summer while middle-class kids typically do. This difference accounts for roughly 80 percent of the gap in reading achievement that exists between rich and poor kids. By grade 9 that reading achievement gap is three to four years wide.
Middle-class ninth graders, on average, read at the ninth-grade level. Low-income ninth graders, regardless of ethnicity, read at the fifth- or sixth-grade level. On average, students from low-income families learn as much during the school year as kids from wealthier families — even in New York City. But every summer the lack of reading practice produces losses in reading proficiency, while doing some reading during the summer produces small gains.
The evidence is clear that how kids spend their matters. Low-income kids lose about three months in reading proficiency every summer. That means every three years they fall a year behind middle-class kids, even when their teachers are just as effective as the teachers middle-class kids have.
Several research studies have shown that simply giving low-income children books on the final day of school can stem summer reading loss. But these books must be books they can and want to read. Our studies allowed students to select the books from 500 or so titles we had picked to match student reading levels and interests. We spent about $40 per child per summer (about the same cost as a test preparation workbook). The kids each selected 12 books, which they got to keep.
I know there are readers thinking, “Why not just have these kids go to the public library to get their book?” While public libraries are essential, and good outreach programs from public libraries can increase summer reading for all children, those efforts may not get all kids to check out a dozen books every summer.
Parents (and teachers) are right to worry about whether students read during the summer. But assigning books is about the least effective strategy to achieve that goal. It is past time for schools to provide children with easy summer access to books they want to read.
Choosing Your Assignment
Elizabeth Birr Mojeis a professor of education at the University of Michigan.
The question of how to prevent summer learning loss has plagued U.S. schools for years. There is no question that some level of skill is lost or diminished for a large number of children and youth over the summer months. In many cases, these skills are easily renewed as soon as students begin school again. But in some cases, the loss chips away at learning gains; this is particularly true for children and youth who find school learning difficult during the academic months as well.
Whether assigning vacation homework would help to diminish the effects of the summer learning loss is an open question, but an equally important set of questions revolves around what such “homework” would involve, how it would be “regulated” (i.e., would students choose or would they be forced to do homework?), and how it would be supported.
In general, we know that assignments that merely drill students on basic skills is less useful than homework that supports them in meaningful thinking and activity. Summer homework, in particular, needs to provide choice with guidance, be embedded in projects or activities that have a real purpose, connect students to networks that support making sense of the activities, and ensure that youth from all backgrounds and socioeconomic levels have equal opportunity to participate.
For example, if schools want to promote the maintenance of reading skills, then they should consider assigning reading lists that offer choices. Such lists should not only promote the reading of novels, but should include informational texts, short stories, poetry, newspaper and magazine articles and web blogs in both paper and digital forms.
Providing children and youth with guided choice reduces the likelihood that they will resent being forced to do the work over the summer months; encouraging wide reading prepares them for the reading demands of upper grades by building world and word knowledge.
Schools (or parents) should also build opportunities for students to discuss the readings, either through face-to-face or on-line discussions. Offering opportunities for discussion and even application of concepts can push students to read beyond their initial preferences as they offer texts to one another, thus diminishing the need to “force” students to read particular texts.
Without discussion, children and youth may complete assignments just to check them off the list, not really engaging with the ideas or learning new critical skills or knowledge.
Another possibility for summer homework is community service or work projects where students can learn new academic skills, and also practice those they have learned during the school year. Combining the use of these skills in meaningful social and workplace activity can be motivating for even young children. This kind of “homework” is more challenging to monitor, but the benefits to young people and communities are high.
Whatever the form of summer homework, it is only a good idea if efforts are made to make it meaningful, engaging, and accessible to all.
What Low Achievers Need
Tyrone Howard is an associate professor at the U.C.L.A. Graduate School of Education and Information Studies.
The utility of homework has been a sacred cow in many education circles for years. I think homework has become a practice that has continued on because it has been normalized in educational behavior. Homework should help to reinforce content or materials that teachers have taught or covered in class. But in many cases today, homework has been reduced to busy work that posseses minimal value in developing deeper understanding.
That said, assigning summer homework is a good idea in theory. Some researchers have documented that some students lose grasp of key reading and mathematical principles when they have not used them for a two to three month period.
But the issue becomes one of accountability and reinforcement of understanding. If teachers cannot get students to turn in homework during the school year, when they see them every day, what is the likelihood that they will get them to do it, and with accuracy, when they do not see them?
I do think that there is a need to reinforce key academic concepts and skills, especially for lower achievers, who tend to be students of color, and students from poor backgrounds. A better approach than homework over the summer is the more intensive, small learning community-type summer school programs that last four to six weeks. These programs allow students to have access to teachers in a smaller learning environment for three to four hours a day. The benefits, I believe, would be far greater than more mind-numbing homework.
Homework and Achievement
Harris Cooper offers more details about the link between homework and student achievement:
Homework’s effect on achievement is best gauged by experimental studies comparing students who are purposely assigned homework with students purposely assigned no homework but who are similar in other ways. The results of such studies suggest that homework can improve students’ scores on the class tests that come at the end of a topic. In five such studies, students assigned homework in 2nd grade did better on math, 3rd and 4th graders did better on English skills and vocabulary, 5th graders on social studies, 9th through 12th graders on American history, and 12th graders on Shakespeare.
Less authoritative are 12 studies that link naturally-occurring (not manipulated) amounts of homework to achievement. On the positive side, these studies used sophisticated statistical models to control for lots of other things that might influence the homework-achievement connection. The controlled factors have included the student’s ability level and family background and the teachers’ experience. These studies have the added advantage that they are often based on national samples and use measures of achievement such as grade point averages and standardized tests. They find a similar positive link between time on homework and achievement. But most of these studies were done with high school students.
Yet other studies simply correlated homework and achievement with no attempt to control for student differences. In 35 such studies, about 77 percent found the link between homework and achievement was positive. Most interesting though, these results suggested little or no relationship between time on homework and achievement for elementary school students. These inferior studies are at odds with the more trustworthy experimental studies mentioned above. But, if we assume that the experimental studies involved relatively short assignments, they do suggest too much homework for young kids might not be a good thing. (Too much homework might also not be good for adolescents but studies show assignments can be longer before reaching the point of diminishing returns.)
Students, regardless of economic status, lost roughly equal amounts of math skills over summer.
Do we want our children to start the year refreshed and ready to learn? Or burned out and resentful?
Students regard learning as a classroom thing, and spend their leisure hours text-messaging. Here’s how we can deal with that.
Summer should be seen as a gift, an important time to explore new hobbies, work a summer job, gain independence.
Low-income kids lose about three months in reading proficiency every summer.
A better approach than homework is to have more intensive, small learning community-type summer school programs that last four to six weeks.