This article is about the organisation. For general information on railways in India, see Rail transport in India.
Schematic network map
Map of Indian Railways network with population density
|Dates of operation||8 May 1845 (1845-05-08)–Present|
|Track gauge||1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in)|
1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in)
762 mm (2 ft 6 in)
610 mm (2 ft)
|Electrification||25,367 kilometres (15,762 mi)|
|Length||67,368 kilometres (41,861 mi) (route)|
93,902 kilometres (58,348 mi) (running track)
121,407 kilometres (75,439 mi) (total track)
Indian Railways(IR) is India's national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways. It manages the fourth-largest railway network in the world by size, with 121,407 kilometres (75,439 mi) of total track over a 67,368-kilometre (41,861 mi) route. Thirty eight percent of the routes are electrified with 25 KV AC electric traction while thirty-three percent of them are double or multi-tracked .
IR runs more than 13,000 passenger trains daily, on both long-distance and suburban routes, from 7,349 stations across India. The trains have a five-digit numbering system. Mail or express trains, the most common types, run at an average speed of 50.6 kilometres per hour (31.4 mph). In the freight segment, IR runs more than 9,200 trains daily. The average speed of freight trains is around 24 kilometres per hour (15 mph).
As of March 2017, IR's rolling stock consisted of 277,987 freight wagons, 70,937 passenger coaches and 11,452 locomotives. IR owns locomotive and coach-production facilities at several locations in India.
The world's eighth-largest employer, it had 1.308 million employees as of March 2017..
In the year ending March 2018, IR is projected to carry 8.26 billion passengers and transport 1.16 billion tons of freight . In the fiscal year 2017-18, IR is projected to have earnings of ₹1.874 trillion (US$29 billion), consisting of ₹1.175 trillion (US$18 billion) in freight revenue and ₹501.25 billion (US$7.7 billion) in passenger revenue, with an operating ratio of 96.0 percent.
Main article: History of rail transport in India
The first railway proposals for India were made in Madras in 1832. The country's first train, Red Hill Railway (built by Arthur Cotton to transport granite for road-building), ran from Red Hills to the Chintadripet bridge in Madras in 1837. India's first passenger train, hauled by three steam locomotives (Sahib, Sindh and Sultan), ran for 34 kilometres (21 mi) with 400 people in 14 carriages on 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge track between Bori Bunder (Mumbai) and Thane on 16 April 1853. The Dapoorie viaduct, India's first railway bridge, was built over the Ulhas River when the Mumbai-Thane line was extended to Kalyan in May 1854. Eastern India's first passenger train ran 24 miles (39 km) from Howrah, near Kolkata, to Hoogly on 15 August 1854. The first passenger train in South India ran 60 miles (97 km) from Royapuram- Veyasarapady (Madras) to Wallajah Road (Arcot) on 1 July 1856.
On 24 February 1873, a horse-drawn 3.8-kilometre (2.4 mi) tram opened in Calcutta between Sealdah and Armenian Ghat Street. In 1897, lighting in passenger coaches was introduced by many railway companies. On 3 February 1925, the first electric passenger train in India ran between Victoria Terminus and Kurla.
The organisation of Indian railways into regional zones began in 1951, when the Southern (14 April 1951), Central (5 November 1951) and Western (5 November 1951) zones were created. Fans and lights were mandated for all compartments in all passenger classes in 1951, and sleeping accommodations were introduced in coaches. In 1956, the first fully air-conditioned train was introduced between Howrah and Delhi. Ten years later, the first containerized freight service began between Mumbai and Ahmedabad. In 1986, computerized ticketing and reservations were introduced in New Delhi.
In 1988, the first Shatabdi Express was introduced between New Delhi and Jhansi; it was later extended to Bhopal. Two years later, the first self-printing ticket machine (SPTM) was introduced in New Delhi. In 1993, air-conditioned three-tier coaches and a sleeper class (separate from second class) were introduced on IR. The CONCERT system of computerized reservations was deployed in New Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai in September 1996. In 1998, coupon validating machines (CVMs) were introduced at Mumbai Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus. The nationwide Concierge system began operation on 18 April 1999. In February 2000, the Indian Railways website went online. On 3 August 2002, IR began online train reservations and ticketing.
India's first passenger train, between Bombay and Thane, in 1853
Railway map of India in 1909
Main articles: Indian Railway organisational structure and Zones and divisions of Indian Railways
Indian Railways is headed by a seven-member Railway Board whose chairman reports to the Ministry of Railways. IR is divided into 17 zones, headed by general managers who report to the Railway Board. The zones are further subdivided into 68 operating divisions, headed by divisional railway managers (DRM). The divisional officers of the engineering, mechanical, electrical, signal and telecommunication, stores, accounts, personnel, operating, commercial, security and safety branches report to their respective DRMs and are tasked with the operation and maintenance of assets. Station masters control individual stations and train movements through their stations' territory. In addition, there are a number of Production Units, Training Establishments, Public Sector Enterprises and other Offices working under the control of Railway Board.
Subsidiaries and Undertakings
IR is a major shareholder in 16 Public Sector Undertakings (PSU) and other organizations that are related to rail transport in India. Notable among this list include  :
Financing, Construction and Project Implementation : IRFC, RITES, IRCON, MRVC, RVNL
Land and Station Development : RLDA, IRSDC
Rail Infrastructure : DFCCIL, PRCL
Passenger and Freight Train Operations : KRCL, CONCOR
IT and Communications : CRIS, RCIL
Catering and Tourism : IRCTC
Main article: Centralised Training Institutes of the Indian Railways
Staff are classified into gazetted (Groups A and B) and non-gazetted (Groups C and D) employees. . Gazetted employees carry out executive / managerial / supervisorial level tasks. As of March 2017, number of personnel (Groups A & B) constitute 1.2% of the total strength, while Group C & D account for 92.6% and 6.2% respectively.
Recruitment of Group A employees is carried out by the Union Public Service Commission by examination. Recruitment of Group C section and junior engineers and depot material superintendents is conducted by the Railway Recruitment Board. Group C and D employees are recruited by 21 railway recruitment boards and cells, which are controlled by the Railway Recruitment Control Board (RRCB). IR recruits for lower-level positions through its RRB NTPC (Railway Recruitment Board Non-Technical) examination.
The training of all groups is shared among seven centralised training institutes and 295 Training centers located all over India.
IR offers housing and runs its own hospitals, schools and sports facilities for the welfare of its staff.
Main article: Locomotives of India
India uses electric and diesel locomotives, along with a few CNG (compressed natural gas) locomotives.Steam locomotives are no longer in use, except in heritage trains. Locomotives in India are classified by gauge, motive power, the work they are suited for and their power or model number. Their four- or five-letter class name includes this information. The first letter denotes the track gauge; the second their motive power (diesel or electric), and the third their suitable traffic (goods, passenger, multi or shunting). The fourth letter denotes a locomotive's chronological model number. In 2002, a new classification was adopted in which the fourth letter indicates a newer diesel locomotive's horsepower range.
A locomotive may have a fifth letter in its name, denoting a technical variant, subclass or subtype (a variation in the basic model (or series) or a different motor or manufacturer). In the new diesel-locomotive classification, the fifth letter refines the horsepower in 100-hp increments: A for 100 hp, B for 200 hp, C for 300 hp an so on. In this classification, a WDM-3A is a 3100 hp, a WDM-3D a 3300 hp and a WDM-3F a 3600 hp locomotive.[a] Diesel locomotives are fitted with auxiliary power units, which save almost 88 percent of fuel during idle time when a train is not running.
See also: Wagon numbering system in India
As of March 2017, IR fleet consisted of 277,987 goods wagons. They carried 1,110 million tonnes of freight in Fiscal Year 2016-17. Wagon types used by IR include BCACBM, BCCN, BCNA, BCNHL, BOBRN, BOBYN, BOXN (BOXN-HL, BOXN-HS, BOXN-HL, BOXN-CR, BOXN-LW, BOXN-AL, BOXN-EL), BRH, BTPGLN, BTPN and VVN.
IR’s bulk requirement of wagons is met by wagon manufacturing units both in public and private sectors as well as other Public Sector Units under the administrative control of Ministry of Railways .
On long distance routes and also on some shorter routes, IR uses 2 primary types of coach design types. ICF coaches, in production from 1955 until Jan 2018, constitute the bulk of the current stock. These coaches, considered to be having inadequate safety features, are slowly being phased out. As of September 2017, around 40,000 coaches are still in operation. The older coaches are being replaced with LHB coaches. Introduced in mid '90s, these coaches are lighter, safer and are capable of speeds up to 160 kilometres per hour (99 mph).
IR has announced that two new self-propelled train set designs will be introduced starting from mid 2018. These two train types, termed as Train-18 and Train-20, are expected to replace locomotive-hauled trains on long distance routes.
On regional short distance routes, IR runs Mainline Electrical Multiple Unit (MEMU) or Diesel Electrical Multiple Unit (DEMU) trains, depending on the traction available. These train sets are self-propelled with capability for faster acceleration or deceleration and are expected to reduce congestion on dense routes. Passenger locomotive-hauled trains, having frequent stops are slowly being replaced with train sets across India.
On suburban commuter routes around the large urban centers, IR runs trains with Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) coaches. As of March 2017, about 9100 coaches are in operation.
Indian Railways is a vertically-integrated organization that produces majority of its rolling stock at in-house production units, with a few recent exceptions. The Chittaranjan Locomotive Works in Chittaranjan manufactures electric locomotives, and the Diesel Locomotive Works in Varanasi makes Diesel and Electric locomotives. The Diesel-Loco Modernisation Works in Patiala upgrades the WDM-2 locomotive from 2,600 to 3,100 hp. Some electric locomotives have been supplied by Bharat Heavy Electricals, and locomotive components are manufactured in other plants around the country.
Coaches are produced at Integral Coach Factory, Rail Coach Factory and Modern Coach Factory located in different parts of the country. The Rail Wheel Factory at Yelahanka, Bangalore and the Rail Wheel Plant, Bela in Chhapra, Bihar manufactures wheels and axles.
The repair and maintenance of this vast fleet of rolling stock is carried out at 44 loco sheds, 212 carriage & wagon repair units and 45 periodic overhaul workshops located across various zones of IR.
In November 2015, IR awarded USD 2.6bn locomotive supply and maintenance contract to General Electric. The contract stipulates that GE will import 40 locomotives and will produce another 960 over a period of 11 years in a new Diesel Locomotive Factory at Marhowra in Bihar. On the same day, another USD 3bn contract has been awarded to Alstom SA to manufacture 800 high power electric locomotives (12000 HP) over 11 yeas in a new Electric Locomotive Factory at Madhepura.
See also: Project Unigauge
As of March 2017, IR network spans 121,407 km (75,439 mi) of track length, while the route length is 67,368 km (41,861 mi). Track sections are rated for speeds ranging from 80 to 200 km/h (50 to 124 mph), though the maximum speed attained by passenger trains is 180 km/h (110 mph).
1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge, is the predominant gauge used by IR and spans 61,680 km (38,330 mi) of route (92% of total route network). It is the broadest gauge in use across the world for passenger movement.  Broad gauge generated 100% of the freight output (Net tonne-Kilometres) and more than 99% of the passenger output (Passenger Kilometres) in the fiscal year 2016-17.
The 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge tracks; 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) and 610 mm (2 ft) narrow gauge tracks are present on fewer number of routes. All of these routes, except the heritage routes, are being converted to broad gauge. The metre gauge tracks were 3,479 kilometres (2,162 mi) (5% of total route network) and narrow gauges tracks were 2,208 km (1,372 mi) (3% of total route network) as of 31 March 2017.[update]
As of March 2017, most of the mainline broad-gauge network is equipped with long-welded rails, pre-stressed concrete (PSC) sleepers and high tensile strength 52kg/60kg 90 UTS rails.
Main article: Central Organisation for Railway Electrification
As of 31 March 2017, IR has electrified 25,367 km (15,762 mi) of the route kilometers or 48,239 km (29,974 mi) of the total running track. India uses 25 kV AC traction on all its electrified tracks.
Railway electrification in India began with the first electric train, between Bombay Victoria Terminus and Kurla on the Harbour Line, on 3 February 1925 on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR) at 1500 V DC. Heavy gradients in the Western Ghats necessitated the introduction of electric traction on the GIPR to Igatpuri on the North East line and Pune on the South East line. On 5 January 1928 1500 V DC traction was introduced on the suburban section of the Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway between Colaba and Borivili, and between Madras Beach and Tambaram of the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway on 11 May 1931, to meet growing traffic needs.
The 3000 V DC electrification of the Howrah-Burdwan section of the Eastern Railway was completed in 1958. The first 3000 V DC EMU service began on the Howrah-Sheoraphuli section on 14 December 1957.
Research and trials in Europe, particularly on French Railways (SNCF), indicated that 25 kV AC was an economical electrification system. Indian Railways decided in 1957 to adopt 25 kV AC as its standard, with SNCF their consultant in the early stages. The first 25 kV AC section was Raj Kharswan–Dongoaposi on the South Eastern Railway in 1960. The first 25 kV AC EMUs, for Kolkata suburban service, began service in September 1962. For continuity, the Howrah–Burdwan section of the Eastern Railway and the Madras Beach–Tambaram section of the Southern Railway were converted to 25 kV AC by 1968. Because of limitations in the DC traction system, a decision was made to convert to 25 kV AC in 1996-97. The conversion from DC to AC traction was completed in 2012 by the Western Railway, and in 2016 by the Central Railway. Since then, the entire electrified mainline rail network in India uses 25 kV AC, and DC traction is used only for metros and trams.
Indian Railways announced on 31 March 2017 that the country's entire rail network would be electrified by 2022.
Signaling and Telecommunication
See also: Railway signal and Railway signalling
IR uses a range of signalling technologies and methods to manage its train operations based on traffic density and safety requirements.
As of March 2017, around 2,850 km (1,770 mi) of the route uses automatic block signalling for train operations - concentrated in high density routes, large cities and junctions. Remaining routes are based on absolute block signalling with trains manually controlled by signal men from the signal boxes typically located at stations. Few low density routes still use manual block signalling methods with communication on track clearance based on physical exchange of tokens. In a few sections, intermediate block signalling is provided to further enhance line capacity with minimal investment. As of March 2017. 501 block sections have intermediate block signals on IR.
IR primarily uses coloured signal lights, which replaced semaphores and disc-based signalling (dependent on position or colour). IR uses two-aspect, three-aspect and four (or multiple) aspect color signalling across its network.
Signals at most stations are interlocked using Panel Interlocking, Route-Relay Interlocking or Electronic Interlocking methods that eliminate scope for human signalling errors. IR uses track circuiting, and block proving axle counters for train detection.
As of March 2017, 5584 stations across IR (about 90% of stations on Broad Gauge) have interlocked stations and multi-aspect signalling. Around 99% of key routes (A, B, C and D) have track circuitry or block proving axle counters for automated train detection. Also, IR has about 51,000 route kilometers of Optical Fiber Cable (OFC) network across India, that is used for train control, voice and data communication. Around 2,500 km (1,600 mi) of route is covered by GSM-R based Mobile Train Radio Communication.
In December 2017, IR announced that it will implement ETCS Level 2 system for signalling and control on key routes with an investment of ₹12,000 crore (US$1.8 billion). Currently IR uses Centralised Traffic Control (CTC) on the busy Ghaziabad - Kanpur route and real-time train monitoring systems on Mumbai and Kolkata suburban routes.
Links with adjacent countries
Rail links between India and neighboring countries are not well developed. Two trains operate to Pakistan: the Samjhauta Express between Delhi and Lahore, and the Thar Express between Jodhpur and Karachi. Bangladesh is connected by the biweekly Maitree Express that runs from Kolkata to Dhaka and Bandhan Express which began running commercial trips between Kolkata and Khulna in November 2017. Two rail links to Nepal exist: passenger service between Jaynagar and Bijalpura and freight services between Raxaul and Birganj.
Indian and Bangladeshi governments planned to start work by January 2015 on a new rail link to ease surface transport. India will build a 13 km (8.1 mi) railway linking Tripura's capital Agartala with Bangladesh's southeastern city of Akhaura, an important railway junction connected to Chittagong port, resource-rich Sylhet and Dhaka. An agreement to implement the railway project was signed between India's former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Bangladesh Premier Sheikh Hasina during her visit to India in January 2010. Total cost of the proposed project is estimated at ₹252 crore (US$39 million). The Indian Railway Construction Company (IRCON) would lay the new railway tracks on both sides of the border. Of the 13 km (8.1 mi) rail line, 5 km (3.1 mi) of tracks fall in Indian territory. The Northeast Frontier Railways (NFR) is laying the connecting tracks for the new rail link on the Indian side, up to Tripura's southern-most border town, Sabroom - 135 km (84 mi) south of Agartala. From Sabroom, the Chittagong international sea port is 72 km (45 mi) away.
No rail link exists with Myanmar but a railway line is to be built from Jiribam (in Manipur) to Tamu through Imphal and Moreh. The construction of this missing link, as per the feasibility study conducted by the Ministry of External Affairs through RITES Ltd, is estimated to cost ₹29.41 billion (US$450 million). An 18 km (11 mi) railway link with Bhutan is being constructed from Hashimara in West Bengal to Toribari in Bhutan. No rail link exists with either China or Sri Lanka.
Main articles: Indian Railways coaching stock and Urban rail transit in India
IR has several classes of travel, with or without air-conditioning. A train may have one or several classes. Slow passenger trains have only unreserved seating, and the Rajdhani Express, Shatabdi Express, Garib Rath Express, Double Decker Express, Tejas Express, Humsafar Express and Yuva Express have only air-conditioned classes. Fares for all classes differ, and unreserved seating is the least expensive. Fares for the Rajdhani, Duronto and Shatabdi trains include food. In September 2016, IR introduced dynamic fares for the Rajdhani, Duronto and Shatabdi trains (except 1AC and EC classes) to increase revenue. Long-distance trains usually include a pantry car, and food is served at the berth or seat itself. Luxury trains (such as Palace on Wheels) have separate dining cars, but these trains cost as much as—or more than—a five-star hotel room.
A standard passenger rake has four unreserved (general) compartments, two at the front and two at the rear (one of which may be for women). The number of other coaches varies by demand and route. A luggage compartment may be at the front or the rear. On some mail trains, a separate mail coach is attached. Lavatories are communal, and Indian- and Western-style. The classes in operation are (although a train may not have all these classes):
|1A||AC first class: The most luxurious and expensive class of Indian Railways, with fares almost at par with airfares. There are eight cabins (including two coupes) in full AC first class coach and three cabins (including one coupe) in the half AC first class coach. The coach has an attendant, and bedding is included in the fare. This air-conditioned coach, present only on popular routes, can carry 18 (full coach) or 10 passengers (half coach).|
|EA||Anubhuthi: Air-conditioned top-end class of Shatabdi Express. These coaches were introduced in January 2018. First train to get these coaches is Chennai Central–Mysuru Shatabdi Express|
|2A||AC two tier: These air-conditioned coaches have sleeping berths across eight bays. Berths are usually arranged in two tiers in bays of six: four across the width of the coach and two lengthwise across the corridor, with curtains along the corridor. Bedding is included in the fare. A coach can carry 48 (full coach) or 20 passengers (half coach).|
|FC||First class: Similar to 1A, but without air-conditioning. No bedding is available in this class, and the berths are narrower than 1A. There is an attendant, and only heritage trains still have this class.|
|3A||AC three tier: Air-conditioned coaches with 64 sleeping berths. Berths are similar to 2A, but with three tiers across the width and two lengthwise for eight bays of eight. They are slightly less well-appointed, usually with no reading lights or curtains. Bedding is included in the fare.|
|3E||AC three tier (economy): Air-conditioned coaches with sleeping berths on the Garib Rath Express. Berths are usually arranged as in 3A, but with three tiers across the width and three llengthwise. Appointments are similar to 3A, and bedding is not included.|
|EC||Executive chair car: An air-conditioned coach with spacious seats and legroom. With four seats in a row, it is used for intercity day travel and is available on the Tejas and Shatabdi Express.|
|CC||AC chair car: An air-conditioned coach with five seats in a row, used for intercity day travel. Air-conditioned double-deck coaches are used on the Double Decker Express.|
|SL||Sleeper class: The sleeper class is the most common coach on IR, with ten or more SL coaches attached to a train rake. They are sleeping coaches with three berths across the width and two lengthwise, without air-conditioning. They carry 72 passengers per coach.|
|2S||Second seater: similar to CC, without air-conditioning. Double-deck second seaters are used on the Flying Ranee.|
|UR/GEN||Unreserved/General: The least-expensive accommodation, with a seat not guaranteed. Tickets are valid on any train on a route if used within 24 hours of purchase.|
At the rear of the train is the guard's cabin. It contains a transceiver, and is where the guard usually gives the all-clear signal before the train departs.
Main articles: Train numbering, Named passenger trains, Longest train services, and Longest non-stop run
Trains are sorted into categories which dictate the number of stops on a route, their priority on the network and their fare structure. Each express train is identified by a five-digit number. if the first digit is 1 or 2 in the train number, they are long-distance express trains. If the first digit is 0, the train is a special train which will operate for a limited period of time with a different fare structure. A first digit of 5 denotes a passenger train.
The second digit indicates the zone operating the train. However, for high-speed trains, the second digit is either 0 or 2 (the first remains 1 or 2);. The third digit denotes the division within the zone which is responsible for maintenance and cleanliness, and the last two digits are the train's serial number. The train numbering system was changed from four digits from December 2010, to accommodate an increasing number of trains.
Trains traveling in opposite directions along the same route are usually labelled with consecutive numbers. However, there is considerable variation in train numbers; some zones, such as Central Railway, have a less-systematic method of numbering trains.
Trains are classified by average speed. A faster train has fewer stops (halts) than a slower one, and is usually used for long-distance travel. Most express trains have special names to identify them easily. The names of the trains usually denote the regions they connect, the routes they traverse; a famous person or a tourist spot connected with the train.
|1||Tejas Express||A semi-high-speed, air-conditioned train which had its inaugural run on 24 May 2017, covering 551.7 kilometres (343 mi) in eight hours, 30 minutes. Coaches have bio-vacuum toilets, water-level indicators, tap sensors, hand dryers, integrated Braille displays, an LED TV for each passenger with a phone jack, local cuisine, Wi-Fi, tea and coffee vending machines, magazines, snack tables, CCTV cameras and a fire and smoke detection and extinguishing system.|
|2||Gatimaan Express||The first semi-high-speed, air-conditioned train running between Delhi and Agra. With a speed of 160 km/h (99 mph), it is India's fastest train and takes 100 minutes to cover 188 km (117 mi).|
|3||Shatabdi Express||Air-conditioned, intercity trains for daytime travel. Unlike the Rajdhani or Duronto Expresses, the Shatabdi expresses make a round trip on the same day. The Bhopal Shatabdi Express (train number 12001/12002) is India's second-fastest train between New Delhi and Agra, with an average speed of 90 km/h (56 mph) and a top speed of 150 kilometres per hour (93 mph). The limited-stop trains have Wi-Fi.|
|4||Rajdhani Express||Limited-stop, air-conditioned trains linking major cities to New Delhi, they have a top speed of 130–140 km/h (81–87 mph). The 2014 railway budget proposed increasing the Rajdhani and Shatabdi Expresses to 180 km/h (110 mph).|
|5||Duronto Express||Non-stop (except for technical halts) service introduced in 2009. In January 2016, it became possible to book tickets from those technical stops. They connect India's metros and major state capitals, and were introduced to equal (or exceed) the speed of the Rajdhani Express. With air-conditioned one-, two- and three-tier seating, some have non-air-conditioned sleeper-class accommodations.|
|6||Humsafar Express||Air-conditioned, three-tier coach trains with LED screens displaying information about stations and train speed, a PA system, vending machines for tea and coffee, charging ports for electronic devices, bio-toilets, smoke alarms, CCTV cameras, curtains and heating and refrigeration facilities for food.|
|7||AC Express||Air-conditioned, limited-stop trains linking major cities, with a speed of about 130 km/h (81 mph).|
|8||Double Decker Express||Air-conditioned, limited-stop, two-tier express trains for daytime travel|
|9||Uday Express||Air Conditioned double decker train for over night travel.|
|10||Garib Rath||Air-conditioned, economy, three-tier trains with a top speed of 130 km/h (81 mph)|
|11||Yuva Express||Introduced with the Duronto Express to provide air-conditioned travel to young Indians, 60 percent of its seats were reserved for passengers between 18 and 45 years of age. The trains were unsuccessful, and operate only on the Delhi-Howrah and Delhi-Mumbai routes.|
|12||Jan Shatabdi Express||A more-economical version of the Shatabdi Express, with air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned classes and a top speed of 110 km/h (68 mph)|
|13||Sampark Kranti Express||Express service to New Delhi|
|14||Kavi Guru Express||Introduced in honor of Rabindranath Tagore, four pairs of the trains operate on the network.|
|15||Vivek Express||Introduced to commemorate the 150th birth Anniversary of Swami Vivekananda in 2013, four pairs of Vivek Expresses run in the country.|
|16||Rajya Rani Express||Introduced to connect state capitals to major cities in that state.|
|17||Mahamana Express||Superfast train with Indian Railways ModelRake coaches|
|18||Intercity Express||Introduced to connect major cities on short routes with high and semi-high speeds. Trains include the Deccan Queen, Flying Ranee and Bilaspur Nagpur Intercity Express.|
|19||Antyodaya Express||Non-reserved, high-speed LHB coaches on peak routes to ease congestion|
|20||Jan Sadharan Express||Non-reserved express trains on peak routes to ease congestion|
|21||Premium Express||High priority trains with dynamic pricing on high demand routes. These trains are also called as Suvidha Express|
|22||Superfast Express/Mail||Trains with a speed greater than 100–110 km/h (62–68 mph), whose tickets have a superfast surcharge|
|23||Express/Mails||India's most common train type, with stops at relatively-important intermediate stations|
|24||Fast Passenger and Passenger||Slow, economical trains which stop at every (or almost every) station on a route. With generally-unreserved seating, some night trains have sleeper and three-tier air-conditioned compartments. The trains travel at about 40–80 km/h (25–50 mph).|
|25||Suburban trains||These trains operate in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Pune and between Kanpur and Lucknow, usually stop at every station, and have unreserved seating.|
|26||Metro||Designed for urban transport, the first metro was the Kolkata Metro.|
|27||Luxury Trains||IR operates luxury trains, such as the Palace on Wheels, Royal Rajasthan on Wheels, Maharaja Express, Deccan Odyssey, The Golden Chariot and the Mahaparinirvan Express. The Fairy Queen, a tourist attraction as the world's oldest operating steam engine, hauls a luxury train from Delhi to Alwar.|
|28||Mountain Railways||Three of the lines were declared a World Heritage site as Mountain Railways of India by UNESCO.|
Indian Railway operates tourist train or coach services on popular tourist circuits in different regions of the country. The service offers tour packages inclusive of rail travel, local transportation, accommodation, food and guided tours. IR offers various tourist services in this segment including Luxury tourist trains, Semi luxury trains, Buddhist special trains, Bharat Darshan trains, Aastha Circuit trains and Steam trains.
The Palace on Wheels is a luxury-train service, frequently hauled by a steam locomotive, to promote tourism in Rajasthan. The train has a seven-night, eight-day itinerary on a round trip from New Delhi via Jaipur, Sawai Madhopur and Chittaurgarh, Udaipur, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Bharatpur and Agra.
Royal Rajasthan on Wheels covers a number of tourist destinations in Rajasthan. The seven-day, eight-night tour is a round trip from New Delhi's Safdarjung station via Jodhpur, Udaipur and Chittaurgarh, Ranthambore National Park and Jaipur, Khajuraho, Varanasi and Sarnath, and Agra.
Maharajas' Express, a luxury train operated by the
Synopsis: The history of Indian Railways goes back to 1853. Since then it has grown into a vast network. It is the single largest employer in the world. But there are many challenges before it including tough competition from private sector in transportation by roads. It has undertaken the ‘Project Unigauge’ on a large scale. By 2004 all of its existing metre and narrow gauge will be turned into broad gauge. Similarly, route-electrification has been undertaken. It has introduced many new, innovative and progressive schemes and yet it has to cover a long distance in the matters of safely, punctuality, sanitation, consumer satisfaction, reservations, behavior of staff etc. Corruption is rampant in the railways and it needs to be checked immediately. It needs mass restricting in many areas.
The history of Indian Railways goes back to the year 1853 when the first train steamed off from Bombay to Thane, a distance of 34 km. Since then Indian Railways has grown into a vast network of 7,043 stations spread over a route length of 62,600km, with a fleet of 7,806 locomotives, 39,929 coaches, 3,444 electric multiple units and 3,46,394 wagons in 1993. The growth of Indian Railways during these years can be said to be really phenomenal. The network runs multi-gauge operations including Broad Gauge, Metre Gauge and Narrow Gauge. The railways in India provide the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers. It brings people together from the farthest, sightseeing, pilgrimage and education. India railways have been a great integrating force during the last 100 years. It has integrated the economic life of the country and helped in accelerating the development of industry and agriculture.
Indian Railways is the single largest employer in the world with about 2 lakh employees. It handles 70-75% of the bulk movement and contributes about 2.6% of the G.D.P, and its sales revenue is equivalent of 8% of G.D.P. Its engine efficiency is 92% and it boasts the highest asset utilization rate in the world. But on the minus side 40% of its wagons movement is empty. It offers over 104 types of concessions to its travelers—so much so that almost half the passengers on a train are discount passengers. During 1995-96 the Indian railways incurred loss of Rs.12.16 billion in passenger service and transportation of essential goods. It is divided into 9 zones and further sub-divided into 59 divisions. Divisions are the basic operating units.
The main objective of railway planning has been to develop the transport infrastructure to carry the projected quantum of traffic and meet the development needs of the economy. So far Indian railways have implemented Eight Five Year Plans, apart from Annual Plans in some years. During the plan-periods, the emphasis has been on a comprehensive programme of system modernization. During the decade 1991-2000, about 60% increase in total traffic is anticipated. With most of the hard-core routes nearly saturated, it is going to be the most challenging to maintain viability in the face of rising costs and competition from the private section in transportation by roads. To meet these challenges, it would be necessary to improve staff productivity, efficiency, reliability, safety etc. with adoption of appropriate technologies like more power and energy-efficient locomotives and also to make substantial investment for network development wherever the existing line capacity is under strain.
The ‘Project Unigauge’ was launched in 1992-93 and under it the Indian Railways is determined to transform the existing metre and narrow gauge into broad gauge by 2004. About 12,000 km. of lines has been identified for conversion by 1997, the end of the 8th Five Year Plan. The gauge conversion during 1950-92 has been 3,100 km. Between electrification was done. With this, out of 62,600 route km, 12,875 route km. has been electrified. The target for 1996-97 is 634 km, with which the Eighth-Plan target of 2,700 km. will be achieved.
The Indian Railways has done many significant things in regard to the services offered which include introduction of second class sleeper coaches, A.C sleeper and Chair Cars, dieselization and electrification, introduction of direct trains connecting several additional pairs of cities, superfast trains like Rajdhani and Shatabdi Expresses. But still there are many areas where the customer satisfaction is not there. For example, as regards safety, punctuality, sanitation, amenities on trains is still much to be done and improved. Corruption is rampant in railways and the number of accidents is on the increase. The cases of bomb-explosions, robberies, thefts etc. are also increasing.
The Indian Railways needs a massive restricting and re-orientation to customize to the needs of the customers. The falling share of the railways traffic is another point of concern. In 1950s, it carried over 80% of both passenger and freight traffic. Today, its share of originating passenger traffic is just 20% and that of freight 35%. The plain support for the railways has also fallen from 80% to about 15% of the total capital expenses during the last 5 years. Yet the monolith Railways carries over 70-75% of the bulk traffic and 80% of the long distance passenger traffic.
The A.F. Ferqusson report has made many suggestions and recommendations to affect mass restructuring. In regard to passenger traffic, cargo movement and organizational matters. Some of these recommendations are- reduction in transit time, strengthening customer interface facilities, introduction of schemes like overnight/frequent traveler scheme’ inter-modal transport facilities, capacity addition, rotation of menus, improvement of hygiene, offering communication facilities on the trains etc.