Essay Electronic Government In Malaysia

In meeting the challenges of the next decade, the government of Malaysia has taken various kinds of robust action to ensure that the country will be able to adopt a new kind of environment in the new information age. Every public policy has been amended time and again in order to suit the future criteria. The new generation is expected to give more emphasis upon understanding the essence of being an information society. Public and Private sectors have been urged to optimize their knowledge base and tuning their functions in more comprehensive manner by adopting a new style of service delivery and that is done through the manipulation of information technology. This paper will therefore explore evolutionary the establishment of the Malaysia’s Multimedia Super Corridor and the kind of efforts made in the public sector especially on the new so-called national project – Malaysian Electronic Government, one of the flagship applications in the Multimedia Super Corridor Project.

Vision 2020

Vision 2020

was announced by Dr. Mahathir Mohammad, Malaysian Prime Minister at the inaugural meeting of the Malaysian Business Council on February 28, 1991 and it is actually a turning point for the Malaysian society to start a new way of lifestyle to become an informative and progressive society. The Vision highlighted several criteria to achieve its aim in making Malaysia a new developed country according to the Malaysian outlook. Part of the visions implies that Malaysia has to create a progressive society with a highly scientific and technological achievement that requires not only quality human resources but also quality services for public consumption. As a strategy to achieve such vision, Malaysia has embarked on an ambitious plan to leapfrog into the information age by providing intellectual and strategic leadership. The government welcomes the advent of the information age with its promise of a New World order where information, ideas, people, good and services move across border in the most cost effective and liberal ways. Hence this will create a new center of quality and excellent services for the world.

Multimedia Super Corridor

On Mac 7, 1995 Dr. Kenichi Ohmae, Japanese multimedia expert presented his paper to Dr Mahathir Mohammad and his cabinet entitled "Making a Malaysian Miracle – A New National Strategy for Success in The Information Age". This paper was seriously studied and highlighted several strong points for Malaysia to be a regional hub of the information resources in this part of the world. From several discussions on this issue, finally the government agreed to establish a hi-tech advanced multimedia project, so-called Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC).

The MSC will have an integrated environment with all the unique elements and attributes necessary to create the perfect global multimedia climate. This "Corridor" is 15 kilometers wide and 50 kilometers long. It starts from Kuala Lumpur City Center (KLCC) down to the south site of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) which is a new airport that will be commissioned in the mid year of 1998. It will be equipped with advanced infrastructure (fiber-optic backbone with potential capacity of 2.5-10 gigabit per second) to suit telecommunication services, information and multimedia technology. MSC also will have a 5 gigabit per second fiber-optic links to hub in ASEAN, Japan, the US and Europe, enough bandwidth to handle multimedia conferencing as well as high quality voice communication. With advanced infrastructure too, many services such as banking, commercial and business transaction can be done through computerization. In addition, multipurpose card or sometimes called Smart Card will be introduced to facilitate certain activities. Within this particular area, two new world-first intelligent cities will be developed: Putrajaya and Cyberjaya. In 1993, Putrajaya was initially proposed for the new Federal Government Administrative Center. Its development plan was then finalized on February 22, 1995 to support the new dimension of MSC. As for Cyberjaya, this city will allocate a place for multimedia industries, research and development centers, Multimedia University and operational headquarters for multinationals to direct their worldwide manufacturing and trading activities using multimedia technology.

Multimedia Development Corporation (MDC)

Since this project involves the interest of federal and state government (Selangor), both parties agreed to set up a corporation named as Multimedia Development Corporation (MDC) to coordinate every activity related to MSC project. It is a corporation that will be a one-stop agency whose mission is to create the best environment in the world for private sectors companies to pursue and facilitate their investment in the MSC. MDC will enjoy certain powers (statutory powers) to categorize interested company to get MSC status by defining the kind of acceptable multimedia industries that will gain government incentives to operate in the MSC region besides identifying strategic industry concerned. Those companies who get the MSC status are entitled to operate tax free for up to 10 years or receive 100% investment tax allowance besides other benefits and the Malaysian Government’s Bill of Guarantee will guarantee them. In addition, MDC will also responsible to shape MSC laws and policies by advising the government and set standard for the MSC’s information infrastructure and urban development. In general, this corporation will manage and market the MSC besides ensuring the success of the MSC project and the companies operating in it.

Electronic Government

To speed up MSC’s evolution, the Malaysian government has set up seven multimedia applications and these flagship applications are Electronic Government, Telemedicine, Smart School, Multipurpose Card, Research and Development Clusters, Worldwide Manufacturing Web and Borderless Marketing Center. Upon all these applications, Electronic Government has become a center focus under the government main function to optimize its rendering services to the public.

The main purpose of having Electronic Government is to improve in how government operates internally as well as how it delivers services to the people in Malaysia. It will focus on the essence to increase the quality of interaction, accessibility and convenience between citizens and businesses; simultaneously improve information flows and processes within government in ensuring the success of policy development, coordination and enforcement. It will function as a multimedia-networked paperless administration linking Putrajaya to all government centers throughout the country to facilitate inter-governmental collaboration and citizen’s access to governmental services. Electronic Government will later contribute to achieve the political and economic development goals as stated in Vision 2020. This application will enable the government to be more responsive to the needs of its citizens.

Initially the Electronic Government flagship application will focus on services such as Electronic Delivery of Driver and Vehicle Registration, Licensing and Summons Services, Utility Bill Payment, and Ministry of Health On-Line Information, Electronic Procurement, Prime Minister’s Office – Generic Office Environment, Human Resources Management Information System and Project Monitoring System. At the later stage, more governmental services will be transformed utilizing the multimedia technology such as card-based birth and marriage registration, interdepartmental communication and application aims to reengineer, automate and transform the current procurement system. The system will deliver cost savings and faster turnaround times by enabling government to become a "Smart Buyer". PM’s Office-Generic Office Environment will provide a fully integrated, distributed, scalable paperless office environment for the PM’s office by deploying multimedia information technology. Civil Servant will be provided a quick and easy method to access certain information with certain rights of accessibility. Human Resources Management Information System will perform as HRM functions effectively and efficiently in an integrated environment. Project Monitoring System is actually a mechanism for monitoring progress of implemented projects. The service will also provide a platform for exchanging ideas and demonstrating best practice models in information management and communication services.

These priority projects have been thoroughly identified by the Electronic Government Steering Committee which comprises government officials led by the Malaysian Administrative and Modernization and Management Planning Unit (MAMPU), representatives from MDC, leading private sector multimedia companies, IT companies and appointed consultants.

Public and Private Readiness

MSC project is very sophisticated and it requires supports from many sectors and entities. The public as a whole has to be well informed about the features of this project. Mass media should give high priority to expose the content of MSC project and its flagships for public consumption and convenience. The government should now has a developmental plan to create skillful manpower who are capable of operating and maintaining services in this new environment with the state of the art hi–tech information infrastructure to comply with the needs of the society effectively. The private sectors should also play more important roles especially in the research and development activities to provide a better input in the MSC project. Such cooperation and support will able to realize the real feature of MSC.

Conclusion

In sum, although MSC projects are highly cost but the success of its projects and its applications will lead to a new culture of excellence not only to Malaysian society but it will also be a new paradigm for creating value in the Information Age throughout the world. As indicated in Vision 2020, MSC will be a catalyst to start a new way of lifestyle to become an informative and progressive society with super quality services for all nations as a whole. MSC project is not from a single effort. Its creation comes from harnessing the energy, capabilities and vision of the government, many leading edge companies (such as Microsoft and NTT) and those who are prepared to collaborate in this new environment. MSC and its flagships will enable public to be served efficiently with convenient environment. Services given by both the public and the private sectors will be more transparent and responsive. It will serve better interlink for the global village and give the world a place where the full potential of the information age can be exploited without any artificial limits.

"eGov" redirects here. For other uses, see eGov (disambiguation).

E-government (short for electronicgovernment) is the use of electronic communications devices, computers and the Internet to provide public services to citizens and other persons in a country or region. According to Jeong, 2007 the term consists of the digital interactions between a citizen and their government (C2G), between governments and other government agencies (G2G), between government and citizens (G2C), between government and employees (G2E), and between government and businesses/commerces (G2B). E-government delivery models can be broken down into the following categories:[1] This interaction consists of citizens communicating with all levels of government (city, state/province, national, and international), facilitating citizen involvement in governance using information and communication technology (ICT) (such as computers and websites) and business process re-engineering (BPR). Brabham and Guth (2017) interviewed the third party designers of e-government tools in North America about the ideals of user interaction that they build into their technologies, which include progressive values, ubiquitous participation, geolocation, and education of the public.[2]

Terminology[edit]

E-government is also known as e-gov, electronic government, Internet governance, digital government, online government, connected government. As of 2014 the OECD still uses the term digital government, and distinguishes it from e-government in the recommendation produced there for the Network on E-Government of the Public Governance Committee.[3]

Definition[edit]

E-gov strategies (or digital government) is defined as "The employment of the Internet and the world-wide-web for delivering government information and services to the citizens." (United Nations, 2006; AOEMA, 2005).[4]Electronic government (or e-government) essentially refers to "utilization of Information Technology (IT), Information and Communication Technologies (ICT s), and other web-based telecommunication technologies to improve and/or enhance on the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery in the public sector.".[1] E-government promotes and improves broad stakeholders contribution to national and community development, as well as deepen the governance process.[5]

In electronic government systems, government operations are supported by web-based services. It involves the use of information technology, specifically the Internet, to facilitate the communication between the government and its citizens.[6]

UN e-Government Development Index[edit]

The Division of a Public Administration and Development Management (DPAPM) of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA) conducts a bi-annual e-government survey which includes a section titled e-Government Development Index (EGDI). It is a comparative ranking of 193 countries of the world according to three primary indicators: i) the OSI - Online Service Index that measures the online presence of the government in terms of service delivery; ii) the TII - Telecommunication Infrastructure Index iii) HCI -Human Capital Index . Constructing a model for the measurement of digitized services, the Survey assesses the 193 member states of the UN according to a quantitative composite index of e-government readiness based on website assessment; telecommunication infrastructure and human resource endowment.[7]

A diverse group of 100 researchers online volunteers from across the globe engaged with the United Nations Department of Economic Affairs (UN DESA) to process 386 research surveys carried out across 193 UN Member States for the 2016 UN E-Government Survey.[8] The diversity of nationalities and languages of the online volunteers[9]—more than 65 languages, 15 nationalities, of which half are from developing countries—mirrors perfectly the mission of the survey.

Comparison with e-governance[edit]

Main article: e-governance

E-government should enable anyone visiting a city website to communicate and interact with city employees via the Internet with graphical user interfaces (GUI), instant-messaging (IM), learn about government issues through audio/video presentations, and in any way more sophisticated than a simple email letter to the address provided at the site”[10]

The essence of e-governance is "The enhanced value for stakeholders through transformation"[11] and “the use of technology to enhance the access to and delivery of government services to benefit citizens, business partners and employees”.[12] The focus should be on:

  • The use of information and communication technologies, and particularly the Internet, as a tool to achieve better government.[13]
  • The use of information and communication technologies in all facets of the operations of a government organization.[14][15]
  • The continuous optimization of service delivery, constituency participation, and governance by transforming internal and external relationships through technology, the Internet and new media.[16]

Whilst e-government has traditionally been understood as being centered around the operations of government, e-governance is understood to extend the scope by including citizen engagement and participation in governance. As such, following in line with the OECD definition of e-government, e-governance can be defined as the use of ICTs as a tool to achieve better governance.

Delivery models and activities of e-government[edit]

The primary delivery models of e-government can be divided into:

Within each of these interaction domains, four kinds of activities take place:[18][19]

  • pushing information over the Internet, e.g.: regulatory services, general holidays, public hearing schedules, issue briefs, notifications, etc.
  • two-way communications between the agency and the citizen, a business, or another government agency. In this model, users can engage in dialogue with agencies and post problems, comments, or requests to the agency.
  • conducting transactions, e.g.: lodging tax returns, applying for services and grants.
  • governance, e.g.: To enable the citizen transition from passive information access to active citizen participation by:
  1. Informing the citizen
  2. Representing the citizen
  3. Encouraging the citizen to vote
  4. Consulting the citizen
  5. Involving the citizen

Non-internet e-government[edit]

While e-government is often thought of as "online government" or "Internet-based government," many non-Internet "electronic government" technologies can be used in this context. Some non-Internet forms include telephone, fax, PDA, SMS text messaging, MMS, wireless networks and services, Bluetooth, CCTV, tracking systems, RFID, biometric identification, road traffic management and regulatory enforcement, identity cards, smart cards and other near field communication applications; polling station technology (where non-online e-voting is being considered), TV and radio-based delivery of government services (e.g., CSMW), email, online community facilities, newsgroups and electronic mailing lists, online chat, and instant messaging technologies.

Controversies[edit]

Disadvantages[edit]

The main disadvantages concerning e-government is the lack of equality in public access to computers and the internet (the "digital divide", a reference to the fact that people who have low incomes, who are homeless and/or who live in remote regions may have little or no access to the Internet), reliability of information on the web, and issues that could influence and bias public opinions. There are many considerations and potential implications of implementing and designing e-government, including disintermediation of the government and its citizens, impacts on economic, social, and political factors, vulnerability to cyber attacks, and disturbances to the status quo in these areas.[20] See also Electronic leviathan.

The political nature of public sector forms are also cited as disadvantages to e-government systems.[21]

Trust[edit]

Trust in e-governance is very highly dependent on its performance and execution, which can be measured through the effectiveness of current actions. This is much riskier and prone to fluctuation than a system of trust that is based on reputation because performance does not consider past actions.[22]

Development[edit]

Because E-government is in the early stages of development in many countries and jurisdictions, it is hard to be applied to forms of government that have been institutionalized. Age-old bureaucratic practices being delivered in new mediums or using new technologies can lead to problems of miscommunication[23]

Hyper-surveillance[edit]

Increased electronic contact and data exchange between government and its citizens goes both ways. Once e-government technologies become more sophisticated, citizens will be likely be encouraged to interact electronically with the government for more transactions, as e-services are much less costly than bricks and mortar service offices (physical buildings) staffed by civil servants. This could potentially lead to a decrease in privacy for civilians as the government obtains more and more information about their activities. Without safeguards, government agencies might share information on citizens. In a worst-case scenario, with so much information being passed electronically between government and civilians, a totalitarian-like system could develop. When the government has easy access to countless information on its citizens, personal privacy is lost.[24][25]

Cost[edit]

Although "a prodigious amount of money has been spent"[26] on the development and implementation of e-government, some say[who?] it has yielded only a mediocre result. The outcomes and effects of trial Internet-based government services are often difficult to gauge or users seem them unsatisfactory.[27] According to Gartner, Worldwide IT spending is estimated to total $3.6 trillion in 2011 which is 5.1% increase from the year 2010 ($3.4 trillion).[28]

Inaccessibility[edit]

Main article: Digital divide

An e-government website that provides government services often does not offer the "potential to reach many users including those who live in remote areas [without Internet access], are homebound, have low literacy levels, exist on poverty line incomes."[29]Homeless people, people in poverty and elderly people may not have access.

False sense of transparency and accountability[edit]

Opponents of e-government argue that online governmental transparency is dubious because it is maintained by the governments themselves. Information can be added or removed from the public eye. To this day, very few organizations monitor and provide accountability for these modifications. Those that do so, like the United States’ OMBWatch[30] and Government Accountability Project, are often nonprofit volunteers. Even the governments themselves do not always keep track of the information they insert and delete.[31]

Advantages[edit]

The ultimate goal of the e-government is to be able to offer an increased portfolio of public services to citizens in an efficient and cost effective manner. E-government allows for government transparency. Government transparency is important because it allows the public to be informed about what the government is working on as well as the policies they are trying to implement. Simple tasks may be easier to perform through electronic government access. Many changes, such as marital status or address changes can be a long process and take a lot of paper work for citizens. E-government allows these tasks to be performed efficiently with more convenience to individuals. E-government is an easy way for the public to be more involved in political campaigns. It could increase voter awareness, which could lead to an increase in citizen participation in elections. It is convenient and cost-effective for businesses, and the public benefits by getting easy access to the most current information available without having to spend time, energy and money to get it.

E-government helps simplify processes and makes government information more easily accessible for public sector agencies and citizens. For example, the Indiana Bureau of Motor Vehicles simplified the process of certifying driver records to be admitted in county court proceedings.[32]Indiana became the first state to allow government records to be digitally signed, legally certified and delivered electronically by using Electronic Postmark technology. In addition to its simplicity, e-democracy services can reduce costs. Alabama Department of Conservation & Natural Resources, Wal-Mart and NIC[33] developed an online hunting and fishing license service utilizing an existing computer to automate the licensing process. More than 140,000 licenses were purchased at Wal-Mart stores during the first hunting season and the agency estimates it will save $200,000 annually from service.[34]

The anticipated benefits of e-government include efficiency, improved services, better accessibility of public services, sustainable community development and more transparency and accountability.[20]

Democratization[edit]

Main article: E-democracy

One goal of some e-government initiatives is greater citizen participation. Through the Internet's Web 2.0 interactive features, people from all over the country can provide input to politicians or public servants and make their voices heard. Blogging and interactive surveys allow politicians or public servants to see the views of the people on any issue. Chat rooms can place citizens in real-time contact with elected officials or their office staff or provide them with the means to interact directly with public servants, allowing voters to have a direct impact and influence in their government. These technologies can create a more transparent government, allowing voters to immediately see how and why their representatives in the capital are voting the way they are. This helps voters decide whom to vote for in the future or how to help the public servants become more productive.

A government could theoretically move more towards a true democracy with the proper application of e-government. Government transparency will give insight to the public on how decisions are made and hold elected officials or public servants accountable for their actions. The public could become a direct and prominent influence in government legislature to some degree.[35][36][37][38]

Environmental bonuses[edit]

Main article: Paperless office

Proponents of e-government argue that online government services would lessen the need for hard copy paper forms.[39] Due to recent pressures from environmentalist groups, the media, and the public, some governments and organizations have turned to the Internet to reduce paper use. The United States government utilizes the website http://www.forms.gov to provide “internal government forms for federal employees” and thus “produce significant savings in paper.[40] As well, if citizens can apply for government services or permits online, they may not need to drive into a government office, which could lead to less air pollution from gas and diesel-fuelled vehicles.

Speed, efficiency, and convenience[edit]

E-government allows citizens to interact with computers to achieve objectives at any time and any location and eliminates the necessity for physical travel to government agents sitting behind desks and windows. Many e-government services are available to citizens with computers and Internet access 24 hours a day and seven days a week, in contrast to bricks and mortar government offices, which tend to be only open during business hours (notable exceptions are police stations and hospitals, which are usually open 24 hours a day so that staff can deal with emergencies).

Improved accounting and record keeping can be noted through computerization, and information and forms can be easily accessed by citizens with computers and Internet access, which may enable quicker processing time for applications and find information. On the administrative side, access to help find or retrieve files and linked information can now be stored in electronic databases versus hard copies (paper copies) stored in various locations. Individuals with disabilities or conditions that affect their mobility no longer have to be mobile to be active in government and can access public services in the comfort of their own homes[41][42] (as long as they have a computer and Internet and any accessibility equipment they may need).

Public approval[edit]

Main article: e-participation

Recent trials of e-government have been met with acceptance and eagerness from the public.[43][44] Citizens participate in online discussions of political issues with increasing frequency, and young people, who traditionally display minimal interest in government affairs, are drawn to electronic voting procedures.

Although Internet-based governmental programs have been criticized for lack of reliable privacy policies, studies have shown that people value prosecution of offenders over personal confidentiality. Ninety percent of United States adults approve of Internet tracking systems of criminals, and 57% are willing to forgo some of their personal internet privacy if it leads to the prosecution of criminals or terrorists.[45]

Technology-specific e-government[edit]

There are also some technology-specific sub-categories of e-government, such as m-government (mobile government), ubiquitous government), and g-government (GIS/GPS applications for e-government).

The previous concern about developments in E-government concerning technology are due to the limited use of online platforms for political reasons by citizens in local political participations.[46]

The primary delivery models of e-government are classified depending on who benefits. In the development of public sector or private sector portals and platforms, a system is created that benefits all constituents. Citizens needing to renew their vehicle registration have a convenient way to accomplish it while already engaged in meeting the regulatory inspection requirement. On behalf of a government partner, the business provides what has traditionally, and solely, managed by government and can use this service to generate profit or attract new customers. Government agencies are relieved of the cost and complexity of having to process the transactions.[47]

To develop these public sector portals or platforms, governments have the choice to internally develop and manage, outsource, or sign a self-funding contract. The self-funding model creates portals that pay for themselves through convenience fees for certain e-government transactions, known as self-funding portals.

Social networking services and websites are an emerging area for e-democracy. The social networking entry point is within the citizens’ environment and the engagement is on the citizens’ terms. Proponents of e-government perceive government use of social networking as a medium to help government act more like the public it serves. Examples can be found at almost every state government portal through Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube widgets.

Government and its agents also have the opportunity to follow citizens to monitor satisfaction with services they receive. Through ListServs, RSS feeds, mobile messaging, micro-blogging services and blogs, government and its agencies can share information to citizens who share common interests and concerns. Government is also beginning to Twitter. In the state of Rhode Island, Treasurer Frank T. Caprio is offering daily tweets of the state’s cash flow.[48] For a full list of state agencies with Twitter feeds, visit NIC.[49] For more information, visit transparent-gov.com.[50]

Government 2.0[edit]

Government 2.0 or Gov 2.0 refers to government policies that aim to harness collaborative technologies and interactive Internet tools to create an open-sourcecomputing platform in which government, citizens, and innovative companies can improve transparency and efficiency.[51] Put simply, Gov 2.0 is about "putting government in the hands of citizens".[52] Gov 2.0 combines interactive Web 2.0 fundamentals with e-government and increases citizen participation by using open-source platforms, which allow development of innovative apps, websites, and widgets. The government’s role is to provide open data, web services, and platforms as an infrastructure.[53]

By country[edit]

Africa[edit]

Kenya[edit]

Following the transition from the longstanding Kenya African National Union government to the National Rainbow Coalition government in December 2002, in January 2004 a Directorate of e-government was established after an executive (cabinet) session. The newly created department had the duty to draw the plan of action for future ICT implementations.[54]

Like many other African nations, Kenya has embraced the high mobile penetration rate within its population. Even people living in remote areas that did not have access to traditional telecommunications' networks can now communicate with ease. The fact of the same has, and continues to have, a great impact on the governments' strategies in reaching out to its citizens.[55] Given that about 70% of the population owns mobile phones, leading mobile network operators like Safaricom have taken a great step in offering services that meet citizens' demands. Such services include Kipokezi (which allows subscribers to do online chatting and also exchange electronic mails via standard mobile phones), and M-Pesa (which allows the subscribers to send and receive electronic cash). Such services have even appealed to the majority of Kenyans, as they support the branchless members of the society too, in undertaking normal and secure businesses via M-Pesa. The recent IMF report reveals that MPESA transactions in Kenya exceeded those carried out by the Western Union worldwide.[56]

Website: Open Kenya | Transparent Africa

Asia[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

The eGovernment web portal has been developed to provide more convenient access to various government service and information through one window. Services can now be delivered to people at their own convenience, and more importantly now have a lot more weight on transparency and accountability of public services.[57]

India[edit]

The E-Governance initiatives and programs in India are undertaken by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY www.meity.gov.in ). The current umbrella program for e-governance of Government of India is known by the title "DIGITAL INDIA" (www.digitalindia.gov.in)

Indian government has launched many e-governance initiatives, including a portal for public grievance,[58]MCA21 Mission Mode Project,[59] e-Filing of income tax,[60] e-gazette,[61] & digital India policy.[62]

Iran[edit]

In 2002, Iran published a detailed report named TAKFA (Barnameye Tose-e va Karborde Fanavaie Etela’at) in which it was predicted that most of the government bodies would try to virtualize their services as soon as possible. However, based on the reports by UN bodies, Iran has failed in the recent years to meet the average standards of e-government. In 2008, the Supreme Council of Information released a report which criticized the government for its poor advancement in employing new communication technologies for administration purposes.[63]

In 2016, Iran launched the National Information Network and improved the quality and speed of internet access. In 2017 Iran introduced phase one of e-government including E-Tax, E-Customs, E-Visa[64], E-Government Portal,[65] and a mobile application to modernize Iran's government services.[66]

The Iranian government plans to introduce other phases of E-gov in the near future.

Malaysia[edit]

In Malaysia, the e-government efforts are undertaken by the Malaysian government, under the umbrella of Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) and e-government flagships, which was launched in mid-1996, by Dr Mahathir Mohamad (1981-2003), by the then Prime Minister of Malaysia (Jeong & Nor Fadzlina, 2007).[67][68]

Electronic government is an initiative aimed at reinventing how the government works. It seeks to improve both how the government operates, as well as how it deliver services to the people (Ibrahim Ariff & Goh Chen Chuan, 2000).

Myanmar[edit]

The Yangon City Development Committee (Burmese- ရန်ကုန်မြို့တော်စည်ပင်သာယာရေးကော်မတီ) (YCDC) is the administrative body of Yangon, and Yangon is the largest city and former capital of Myanmar (Burma). The Yangon City Development Committee consists of 20 departments. Its headquarters was on the Yangon City Hall. The committee's chairman is also the city's mayor.[citation needed]

In 2003, YCDC was organized to provide e-Government for Yangon City. The main purposes of the city's e-Government program are to provide easy access between the government and the city's citizens via the Internet, to reduce paper usage, to reduce the city budget, to build the city's fiber ring, to provide timely public information, to store public data and to develop and expand G2G, G2C, G2B, and G2E programs.[citation needed]

In January 2013 responsibility for e-Government was divided between the e-Government Administration Committee and the e-Government Processing Committee. The e-Government Administration Committee includes the Mayor of Yangon City as Chief, the General Secretary of Yangon City as Sub-Chief, and the other 20 head of department officers as chairmen. The e-Government Processing Committee includes the Head of Public Relation and Information Department as Chief and the other 20 deputy head of department officers as chairmen.[citation needed]

The official web-portal is www.ycdc.gov.mm.

Nepal[edit]

The e-Government planning and conceptual framework has been presented to Nepal in an extensive support from the Government of Korea (KIPA).[69] E-government Vision is ‘The Value Networking Nepal’ through:

  • Citizen-centered service
  • Transparent service
  • Networked government
  • Knowledge-based society

Nepal’s E-government mission statement[69] is "Improve the quality of people’s lives without any discrimination, transcending regional and racial differences, and realize socio-economic development by building a transparent government and providing value added quality services through ICT."

The e-Government practice has been slow both in adoption and practice in Nepal.[70] However, local government bodies now have dedicated team of ICT Volunteers working towards implementing e-Government in the country through an extensive ICT for Local Bodies initiatives.[71]

Pakistan[edit]

Main article: E-Government in Pakistan

In 2014, the Government of Pakistan created the National Information Technology Board (NITB) under the Ministry of Information Technology & Telecom to enable a digital eco-system for Government services to the citizens of Pakistan. NITB was formed as a result of a merger between Pakistan Computer Bureau (PCB) and Electronic Government Directorate (EGD).
The key functions identified by the NITB are:[72]

  • Provide technical guidance for the introduction of e-Governance in the Federal Govt.
  • Suggest efficient and cost-effective implementation of e-government programs in the Federal Ministries/Divisions.
  • To carry out training need assessment and design and implement the identified IT capacity building programs for the employees of Federal Ministries/Divisions.
  • Review the status of e-government readiness on a regular basis to ensure sustainable, accelerated digitization and relevant human resource development.
  • Identify the areas where IT interventions can be helpful and to suggest measures for the automation of these areas through Business Process Re-engineering (BPR).

NITB rolled out an e-Office Suite across various ministries in the Government of Pakistan. While it clearly pursued efficiency gains and improved transparency, it also hoped to deliver "efficient and cost-effective public services to citizens of Pakistan." The suite primarily included five modules or applications across all the ministries. Description of each module listed are:

  • Internal Communication Module
  • HR Management Module
  • Inventory & Procurement Management Module
  • Project Management Module
  • Finance Budget Module

NITB released a high-level diagram that describes the process of transforming Federal Government agencies and ministries to e-Office environments.[73]

Criticism: NITB's roll out of the e-Office suite across almost all federal agencies is not only overly ambitious but also likely to fail. It seems to put together a lot of lofty organizational efficiency goals with a set of delivery or citizen-facing targets. In fact, most of the services NITB has provided have been largely conceptual and not sufficient concrete. The process outlines in the adoption process diagram seems devoid of any user-centric design or value proposition formulation. Instead of creating lots of MVPs (Minimum Viable Products) and taking advantage of an iterative and validated learning the process, the e-Office Suite seems to incorporate all the features and functions that various ministries and divisions may need or use. It seems to focus more on the needs of the bureaucrats and government agencies rather than the needs of the end user (citizens of Pakistan) and what services would they need that a ministry or division can provide.

Sri Lanka[edit]

Sri Lanka have taken some initiative actions to provide the benefits of e-government to the citizens.[74][75]

Europe[edit]

Further information: eGovernment in Europe

e-government shows significant advancement in Europe.

Armenia[edit]

Armenian e-government was established in 2004. E-government brings together all tools and databases created by Armenian state agencies and provides a user-friendly online environment for users. It includes more than twenty services and tools. Under this initiative, “Interactive Budget”[76] and “State Non-Commercial Organisations' Financing”[77] sections are available for the first time. There are also twenty other tools, including search engines, allowing to find the Government's and the Prime Minister's decisions, the agenda of the next cabinet sitting, information on the state purchases, the electronic tax reporting system, the online application system of the Intellectual Property Agency, the information search system of the Intellectual Property Agency, as well as the Electronic Signature and Electronic Visa (e-visa) sections. It is worth mentioning that the Electronic Signature is used in several other services when a user wants to submit an application or receive information. The Electronic Signature is universal system and is used both by the state officials and by citizens, legal entities.[78]

E-License[edit]

This system allows companies to submit an application for obtaining or terminating licenses regarding various activities (pharmaceuticals, banking, construction, transport etc.) It also provides other services in respect of already obtained license.[79]

System of reports on licensed activities[edit]

The Report Acceptance System for licensed persons enables to submit any report (annually, monthly or quarterly) on licensed activities.[80]

E-Payments[edit]

Electronic Payment System effectively processes online payments. This application is designed specifically for charging the state fees, local fees, the administrative penalties or services provided by state and local governmental bodies. Payments can be made by Visa, Mastercard, Paypal and local Arca or Mobidram systems.[81]

E-Cadastre[edit]

The system enables to submit application to the property cadastre and receive information on land owners, surface of a plot of land, legal status of any property. State electronic payment system is integrated within this tool. Online applications for registration of rights and restrictions and related documents may be submitted by users who have a digital signature.[82]

E-Draft[edit]

In 2016 the Ministry of Justice of Armenia developed Legal Drafts' Database. It is designed particularly for publication any draft initiated by the Government or Member of Parliaments. Database can be accessed trough website which provides the possibility of presenting the legal acts’ drafts to the public, organizing online discussions, and as a consequence - the active participation of representatives of civil society in law-making process. The website enables to search legal drafts, follow their further progress, and become familiar with the presented suggestions. The registered users are able to present suggestions, get informed with the "summary paper" of the suggestions to the draft, the adopted suggestions or the reasoning concerning the not adopted ones.[83]

E-Register[edit]

The system enables registration of legal entities, such as limited liability companies, joint-stock companies, foundations and self-employed entrepreneurs. On average it takes twenty minutes to register a company depending the entity's type. State fee can be paid through E-Payments system. The system also allows users to track the submitted applications and search existing companies as well as purchase full information about any company, including information about shareholders.[84]

Datalex[edit]

This system allows users to find cases, search for laws of Armenia, as well as to follow the schedule of court hearings.[85]

E-Announcement[edit]

The system is designed for public announcements.The state authorities are obliged to make public announcements under certain circumstances stipulated by law.[86]

E-Tax[edit]

This tool simplifies tax declaration process for both tax payers and tax authorities. Any natural person or legal entity can submit tax declaration verifying it by electronic signature.[87]

E-IP[edit]

Online submission of patent and trademark applications using electronic signature.[88]

E-Visa[edit]

This application enables the process of obtaining visa through electronic application. Visas are issued within two days.[89]

E-Signature[edit]

The system allows users to verify identity of the user and protect submitted application. Any resident of Armenia, either natural person or legal entity, can obtain electronic signature and use it while submitting application through E-Government systems.[90]

Estonia[edit]

Estonia has established its e-government program with the support of the European Union since 1996 with the introduction of e-Banking.[91] In 2017, Estonia

E-Government encompasses more than twenty tools and databases providing public services.

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